Older Avalanche Beacon? How to Test It

Post by WildSnow.com blogger | October 10, 2011      
Avalanche Beacons

Avalanche Beacons

Older avalanche beacon? If you’ve read my avalanche beacon reviews, then you probably already know what I think of older non-directional designs that have only a single antenna. But what if you have a modern directional multiple-antenna beacon that’s been in use now for several years?

If you receive a firmware upgrade for your Barryvox, Ortovox, or Pieps beacon, then the upgrade process also runs some diagnostic checks. But otherwise, and even in addition to that, you can run some simple yet valuable tests along with your backcountry skiing partners and their beacons.

The following test protocols were inspired by a beacon retirement article I was asked to provided feedback on for the American Avalanche Association’s The Avalanche Review. I’ve started with the edited testing list I originally provided for that article, and then expanded the exposition in many key areas, as well as targeted it overall for the backcountry recreationalist.

1. Initial Signal Acquisition Range:
This varies enormously among different models, so ideally you should compare the results from your beacon to those of an identical model. First, set up a target beacon. Start with your beacon in Transmit mode, positioned well outside of its receive range. Then switch your beacon to Search and walk at a moderate pace toward the target beacon. Note the distance, turn your beacon back to Transmit (this is important!), and repeat the test a couple times. Now (ideally), run a few trials with a beacon model identical to yours.

Note that how you position the two beacons relative to each other (the coupling position) will affect the distance, so be consistent when comparing different units. Also, don’t be alarmed if you find variations of several meters between trials, even for the very same beacon unit — this is perfectly normal (albeit somewhat confounding).

2. Transmission Range:
This is very similar among different models, so just about any other beacon will work as a comparison unit. (Note though that if you use a BCA Tracker DTS or T2 model as the target, its transmission antenna is at a 45-degree angle to the long axis of the housing, so you need to set it up diagonally. Also, the Ortovox 3+ and new “S1+” — as opposed to the original “S1” sans positive operator sign — can switch the transmission from the antenna that is at parallel to the housing’s long axis to the antenna that is perpendicular to the long axis, so their coupling as a transmission target can be uncertain.)

Repeat the prior test for initial signal acquisition range, but this time you’re swapping the Transmit units, not the Search units.

Not a very effective testing protocol.

Not a very effective testing protocol.

3. Physical Damage to Casing and Harness System:
This is pretty obvious, so no special techniques here. In general though, if something looks suspect, then suspect the worst.

4. Battery Compartment Corrosion and Looseness:
Batteries can leak corrosive acids over time (even if you do replace them regularly, as well as remove them during the off season), and the battery contacts can develop looseness and other problems (especially if you regularly replace and then remove the batteries). Consider using DeoxIT to keep the contacts in good condition.

Micayla hard at work testing a beacon.

Micayla hard at work testing a beacon.

5. Broken Antenna:
To test for a possible broken antenna (on a directional multiple-antenna beacon), set up the target beacon (in Transmit) and your test beacon (in Search) so that they are in optimal coupling alignment, i.e., pointing directly at each other (although see prior note regarding use of a BCA Tracker DTS/T2 or Ortovox 3+/S1+ as targets). Put them far enough apart so that your test beacon is outside the pinpointing/fine phase, yet still well within the initial acquisition range. The center directional indicator on the test beacon should display. If not, you have either a broken secondary antenna or some other major problem — either way, such a problem consigns the beacon to target-only practice instead of normal backcountry skiing use.

6. Auto Revert:
If your beacon has an auto-revert function, does it actually revert to Transmit after the specified amount of time? Note that in some models, the amount of time is fixed, and in others it’s programmable. Also, in some models the amount of time is based on however long the beacon has been in Search, and in others it’s how long the beacon has been in Search without any major movements (i.e., as would happen to a searcher buried in a secondary slide).

7. Frequency Drift
Check for transmission frequency drift with another beacon that has such a capability. As of this time, that includes: Pieps DSP, DSP Advanced (but not the new DSP Tour); Barryvox Pulse, Element; Ortovox 3+, S1, S1+.

This test is particularly important with older Ortovox F1 units, which have a tendency over the years to drift outside of the international standard for avalanche beacons, 457kHz +/- 80Hz. Unfortunately, you can’t test for frequency drift with the range tests previously described, since different beacons have widely varying abilities to pick up a drifted transmission. (In other words, just because Beacon Model A can find Beacon Unit Z, that doesn’t necessarily mean that Beacon Model B can find Beacon Unit Z.)

Extra testing required

'I'm afraid your beacon needs extra testing time, which will require me to delay my bedtime, although that's a sacrifice I'm willing to make for your safety.'

8. Practice, Practice, and Practice Some More:
Many modern beacons have so many advanced functions that some problems might turn up only by running lots of search exercises. Fortunately, this is just another compelling reasons to practice, practice, and practice some more — which is a good thing (especially with your backcountry partners)! Just don’t raise a false alarm if a beacon’s marking/masking/flagging features sometimes works really well and sometimes works not so well. This variability is an inevitable result of signal overlap, and is especially compounded when searching for older F1 units.

Also, while you’re at it make sure your avalanche probe’s tightening cord isn’t frayed or nicked, that the tension is appropriate, and that all the ferrules are aligning as they should. I’ve seen plenty of old well-used probes from an old loaner fleet fail during probe line exercises at avalanche courses. By contrast, a shovel is a pretty low-maintenance and durable piece of gear, but make sure all those little pins (both for connecting the shaft to the blade, and for connecting the two sections of an extendable shaft) are properly seated.

Oh, and your car’s tire pressure, windshield wipers, battery charge, and . . . okay, okay, I’ll finally stop!

(WildSnow guest blogger Jonathan Shefftz lives with his wife and daughter in Western Massachusetts, where he is a member of the Northfield Mountain and Thunderbolt – Mt Greylock ski patrols. Formerly an NCAA alpine race coach, he has broken free from his prior dependence on mechanized ascension to become far more enamored of self-propelled forms of skiing. He is an AIARE-qualified instructor, NSP avalanche instructor, and contributor to the American Avalanche Association’s The Avalanche Review. When he is not searching out elusive freshies in Southern New England, he works as a financial economics consultant.)


10 Responses to “Older Avalanche Beacon? How to Test It”

  1. Matt Kinney October 10th, 2011 9:55 am

    Over the summer, I sent my 3 season old Pieps DSP to SLC for a diagnostic test. Even though it seemed to work fine, it seemed prudent to have it checked out. They ran the test and everything was fine. I did upgrade the harness to the newer one as the original harness was stretched and worn thankfully, from too much use.

    Did some live testing yesterday on 100cm of snow smothering a glacier. 🙂

    I have never heard/seen of a beacon with a broken antenna. That would seem very, very rare.

  2. Greg Louie October 10th, 2011 10:08 am

    Jonathan, does the 8.2 DSP firmware upgrade add anything besides “petfinder” capability?

  3. Jonathan Shefftz October 10th, 2011 10:31 am

    @Greg, the new separate-frequency capability is the only v 8.2 attribute listed in the Pieps chart, although always possible that some behind-the-scenes improvements have also been implemented.

  4. David Aldous October 10th, 2011 12:21 pm

    Has ortovox put out an update for the s1 recently? do you happen to know what the latest firmware number is for the s1?
    Thanks for the beacon testing advise. My buddies and I need to get out and do some practice.

  5. Jonathan October 10th, 2011 12:36 pm

    @David, yes, v 1.2.3488 is the latest firmware for the S1. I tucked in a very brief reference to that (along with the new S1+ release) at the beginning of my S1 review:
    Also, the 3+ has been upgraded to v 1.1 firmware.
    I just received my upgraded Ortovox beacons last week, but I haven’t done any testing with them since I’m waiting to receive the new Element by Barryvox next week (along with the Pieps DSP Tour I already have) for another complete round of testing.
    (@Lou – why doesn’t nine-ounce rando race binders work for the anti-spam quiz?)

  6. NStewart October 12th, 2011 12:24 am

    Good info thanks!

  7. David J October 25th, 2011 3:10 pm


    Can the firmware upgrade 8.2 be used on the DSP as well as the DSP Tour? The Pieps website only has the 8.2 on the Tour. I’m about to pull the trigger on a Pieps and want the dog finder potential,.

  8. Jonathan Shefftz October 25th, 2011 6:47 pm

    David, it’s kind of the other way around: v 8.2 adds the dog-finder feature (i.e., TX600 compatibility) *only* for the regular DSP (sans appendage). The DSP Tour is also v 8.2 (and only v 8.2, since it’s being introduced simultaneously with the v 8.2 upgrade), but w/o the dog-finder feature.
    (The Pieps website is indeed confusing, but only b/c the Tour update chart appears not to have been . . . updated. The user’s manual though is correct, and the Liberty Mountain upgrade page also indicates v 8.2 for the regular DSP.)

  9. David Aldous November 25th, 2011 5:35 pm

    Just got my S1 upgraded today at the Black Diamond store. Thanks for your research in beacons.

  10. Jeff Lane November 30th, 2011 6:11 am

    Jonathan, thanks for keeping this topic fresh in people’s minds.

    One more important note about frequency drift is worth mentioning. Cold temperatures affect the transmit frequency significantly, particularly of the older analog beacons. I’ve seen 100Hz swings in frequency when checking some old beacons indoors vs outdoors. Ideally, your beacon will be warm when worn inside your layers, but in some situations you run the risk of a cold beacon (e.g. if you put your beacon in an outer zippered pocket.) Test the frequency when warm and cold.

    The original Avalanche Review article is available online (see page 9):

    Jeff Lane
    Mount Washington Avalanche Center

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